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Chapter

Cover Strategic Advertising Management

Advertising Across Cultural Borders  

This chapter looks into advertising to different cultures. It lists the basic sources of various cultural assumptions ranging between sources of culture, cognitive organization, and cultural expressions. The chapter uses Hofstede’s dimensions and definitions framework on cultural values citing power distance, individualism/collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, and long-term orientation as dimensions. It also includes the different approaches to communication, which are divided between high-context culture and low-context culture. Moreover, the chapter explores other cultural dimensions such as Schwarz’ Universal Value Structure. It highlights how culture impacts the process and effectiveness of advertising and brand perceptions.

Chapter

Cover Marketing Research

Analysis  

This chapter tackles the meaning and techniques of analysis and the identification of meaningful patterns in data. It distinguishes between qualitative and quantitative data analysis. Transcripts and computer software are features of qualitative analysis; on the other hand, quantitative processes imply preparation, checking, editing, and coding. The coding of open-ended questions is examined in some detail. The chapter covers measures of dispersion, averages, and significance testing. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses are explained, as are procedures for tabulation weighting and grossing.

Chapter

Cover Consumer Behaviour

Attitude Theory and Behaviour Change  

This chapter evaluates attitude theory and behaviour change. It begins by defining the concept of attitudes as used in consumer marketing. The chapter then outlines the main components of the tri-component model, and goes on to consider the hierarchy of effects. Theoretical perspectives including balance theories, motivational theories, and multi-attribute expectancy-value theories are then discussed in depth. The chapters goes on to differentiate between compensatory and non-compensatory models and looks at how they can be used in consumer decision-making. Finally, the chapter explains the various approaches to attitude change, including persuasion models such as the elaboration likelihood model.

Chapter

Cover Marketing Research

Audience and advertising research  

This chapter discusses audience and advertising research. It provides the purposes and shows the importance of audience and advertising research. Media measurement surveys dictate the amounts paid to buy advertising space; they also offer ready-made segmentation to marketing managers. Audience research offers guidance for media owners on what is of interest to readers, viewers, or listeners. The chapter addresses newspapers, magazines, radio, television, the internet, outdoor, and cinema. It also looks at how research can provide some indication of advertising effectiveness. Various measures are enumerated, including impact, emotional involvement, brand recall, image, comprehension, reactions, associations, recognition, appeal, and persuasiveness. The chapter concludes with what must be considered in the publication stage of the research.

Chapter

Cover Strategic Brand Management

Brand Communication  

This chapter looks at brand communication, emphasizing the importance of understanding involvement and motivation to the development of an effective brand message. It addresses how a brand should be positioned and explores how to develop an effective positioning for a brand within marketing communication. The chapter then surveys the strategies needed in executing effective marketing communication, specifically advertising. The roles of brand awareness and brand attitude strategies, and how they must reflect how consumers go about making product and brand decisions in the category are all discussed. Finally, the chapter looks at options for delivering the brand's message, with a particular emphasis on digital media.

Chapter

Cover Strategic Brand Management

Brand Equity  

This chapter explores the idea of brand equity. It starts by analysing how a name has the ability to provide value beyond the objective characteristics of an object. It demonstrates that there are many definitions of brand equity, all of which address this notion of ‘added value’, some in terms of financial considerations, but most from a consumer’s perspective. The chapter theorizes that these consumer-oriented definitions all seem to have in common the idea that brand equity is the result of positive experience with a brand. Many aspects of brands and their links to brand equity are introduced, illustrating the centrality of brand equity to effective strategic brand management, along with the idea of companies and corporations as ‘brands’.

Chapter

Cover Strategic Brand Management

Brand Innovation and Digital Media  

This chapter focuses on brand innovation and digital media. It discusses the relationship between brands and innovation. First, it explores how the use of digital, social media, and mobile marketing is influencing strategic brand management. It then highlights the importance of branding innovations before exploring how individual, personal, and sociocultural factors impact on the adoption of new offerings. Finally, it delves into the strategic brand management implications for a particularly dynamic innovation environment, the high-tech market.

Chapter

Cover Strategic Brand Management

Brand Portfolio Management  

This chapter looks into the broad framework of product and brand portfolio management. It addresses the fundamental questions that must be asked when considering a change in branding strategy. It explores brand stretching and how an evaluation of both category and brand development can help suggest how a manager makes brand stretching decisions. The chapter also introduces the concept of brand retrenching. What is involved in brand extensions and the different ways of dealing with a brand extension strategy is discussed. Various advantages and disadvantages associated with brand stretching and retrenching are presented. Finally, the chapter scrutinizes branding strategy in light of postmodern thinking and the emergence of metamodernism, and the role of nostalgia in retro-marketing.

Chapter

Cover Strategic Brand Management

Brand Strategies 1—Symbolic Brands  

This chapter discusses how managers might develop strategic plans for brands. It begins by proposing a basic model of how brands are built in mindspace over time. It demonstrates how advertising plays a key role in the process. Brand strategies based on personal meanings, on social differentiation, and on social integration are considered. The chapter emphasizes that the social language of the brand can provide a wide range of benefits to the consumer and help transform their experience of the brand.

Chapter

Cover Strategic Brand Management

Brand Strategies 2—Low-Involvement Brands  

This chapter surveys brand strategies for low-involvement brands. It illustrates the vital importance of top-of-mind awareness and brand salience to a functional brand. A range of ways in which brand associations can be built up through pre-conscious and minimal cognitive processes using all elements of communication is presented. The chapter also considers behavioural processes to increase penetration and/or frequency of purchase, and then discusses ways of managing consumer perceptions. It ends with a discussion on how choice situation can be managed. It also looks at approaches to building brand loyalty.

Chapter

Cover Marketing

Branding Decisions  

This chapter covers the process behind branding decisions. It refers to a brand as the added value a product or service is granted in consumers' minds when identified as different from other products. Moreover, brands represent opportunities for both consumers and organizations to buy and sell products and services easily, more efficiently, and relatively quickly. The chapter then highlights the importance of choosing a name for a brand, which in turn builds the foundation for building salience. Branding strategies, like individual, family, and corporate branding, can provide direction, consistency, and brand integrity within an organization's portfolio of brands. The chapter then considers different perspectives on brand equity and its relationship using the brand-value chain.

Chapter

Cover Strategic Marketing

Branding strategies  

This chapter focuses on branding strategies, presenting a series of suggestions to help the brand strategist to create, maintain, and enhance this valuable company asset. A brand is a ‘name, term, sign, symbol (or a combination of these) that identifies the maker or seller of the product’. It allows the consumer to develop a relationship with a product/service. Strategic brand management requires a sophisticated understanding of, first, industry cost structure, brand efficiency, and brand profitability, and second, consumer perceptions of brands and the potential for differentiation and sustainable competitive advantage. The chapter then looks at some examples of the strongest brands in the market, before reviewing various tools and techniques used in branding. It also considers some of the latest thinking regarding brands: scent branding and brand vulgarity.

Chapter

Cover Marketing

Business-to-Business Marketing  

This chapter covers the notion of business-to-business marketing, primarily concerning the marketing of the huge range of offerings bought and sold between organizations. It details the characteristics of business markets, referencing their nature, buying process, international dimensions, and relationships that develop between organizations. Meanwhile, organizational buying behaviour refers to a group buying activity in which several people with different roles make purchasing decisions that affect the organization and the achievement of its objectives. The chapter discusses the application of Pareto Analysis and the customer portfolio matrix concerning key account management. It also notes the importance of reputation and branding in professional services firms.

Chapter

Cover Marketing Research

Business-to-business research  

This chapter analyses research into ‘non-consumer’ sectors. This kind of research comes under various titles such as ‘business-to-business’, ‘industrial’, ‘trade’, and ‘retail’. The chapter reviews industry structures, different classes of product, and the elements of ‘organisational buying behaviour’. It illustrates the importance of satisfaction, quality, image, and employee satisfaction studies. It brings to light the differences of this research with that used in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector. Lastly, it describes the measurement techniques used in this type of research.

Chapter

Cover Strategic Advertising Management

Campaign Strategy  

This chapter discusses campaign strategy. It highlights how campaign strategy is built upon the strategic planning process which takes into account market conditions on how advertising and promotions are used. The chapter then argues that a review of the consumer decision process is vital in order to determine target audiences and decision processes such that the stages of advertising and promotion will be effective. It looks into the unique advantages of advertising and promotions. Additionally, the chapter mentions the effectiveness of direct marketing. It includes how campaign budgets should be in line with sales goals. The chapter explains the significance of monitoring the programme while the campaign is underway.

Chapter

Cover Global Marketing Management

Changes and New Challenges  

This chapter introduces global marketing. It cites the history of global marketing, including the issue of standardization-adaptation. The chapter then differentiates domestic marketing, international marketing, and global marketing. It notes the changes in the global market environment. The chapter highlights Asia as a significant site for the emergence of new economic powers and the global service economy. It discusses the changes in consumer demographics and the nature of competition. The advent of new technologies like the internet and mobile devices opened up business and marketing opportunities and allowed for the development of innovative products, services, and values for consumers. The chapter also includes the growing transparency of corporate practices.

Book

Cover Consumer Behaviour

Isabelle Szmigin and Maria Piacentini

Consumer Behaviour consists of four parts. The first part looks at the historical and current perspectives on consumption. The second part presents a micro-view of consumption which includes examinations of decision-making and involvement, learning and memory, perceptual processes, attitude theory and behaviour change, and personality and motivation. The third part turns to a macro-view of consumption and considers groups, social processes, communication, culture, and patterns of buyer behaviour. The last part focuses on future trends in consumer behaviour.

Chapter

Cover Marketing

Consumer Buying Behaviour  

This chapter discusses consumer buying behaviour. It acknowledges the rational and irrational components of the behaviour as numerous biases influence the decision-making processes. According to researchers, confirmation bias, availability effect, endowment effect, present bias, Dunning-Kruger effect, sunk-cost fallacy, and anchoring are significant factors of consumer behaviour. Despite the individual personality and characteristics of consumers, the opinions, attitudes, and values of others also affect how we consume. The chapter then details how reference groups and cultural differences influence consumer behaviour, highlighting how celebrity endorsers are powerful influencers. It highlights the complexity of human perception, learning, and memory processes when involved with consumer decision-making.

Chapter

Cover Consumer Behaviour

A Context for Understanding Consumption  

This chapter begins by evaluating the early history of consumption and the role of economics and philosophy in the development of consumer behaviour. The chapter also looks at how consumption became a part of everyday life and traces the rise of conspicuous consumption. It explains that industrialization and early global trading provided a hugely expanded range of goods. However, this has also led to what is often termed planned or built-in obsolescence, where a product has a limited lifespan and is regularly replaced with new versions. The chapter then considers the key trends in the development of shops and shopping, as well as the rise of motivational research. It identifies the role of consumerism in the development of consumption and looks at how consumers can be classified before explaining what a postmodern consumer is. Finally, the chapter explores theories and practices of experiential consumption, consumer culture theory and behavioural economics.

Chapter

Cover Global Marketing Management

Creating, Developing, and Maintaining Competitive Advantage  

This chapter explores creating, developing, and maintaining competitive advantage. It differentiates national competitiveness from global competition. The chapter lists the factions affecting the growth of global competition in line with the changing nature of the microeconomic business environment and increasing sophistication of business operations. It narrates the strategy and anatomy of competitive advantage while referencing substance, expression, locale, effect, cause, and time span of competitive advantage. Additionally, the chapter looks into how to create competitive advantage through generic strategies such as cost leadership and differentiation. It includes the resource-based theory of competitive advantage. Relationships, knowledge, and information technology are examined as new sources of competitive advantage.