This chapter ties up the concepts and ideas presented in the book. It starts by examining the common misconceptions in economics. Then, it compares economics with other sciences. Lastly, it emphasizes how economics can help identify the underlying sources of political disagreements and encourage more evidence-based policies.
This chapter explores the challenges and opportunities an organization faces in managing people. It introduces the concept of evidence-based management, which relates to translating principles based on best evidence into organizational practices. It then explains challenges faced by management in using people as economic resources and how an organization's system functions. The chapter also shows that mental models and those of others influence the way people are managed and that unintentional outcomes can derive from human resources (HR) and managerial interventions. Finally, the chapter considers how critical the emotional and psychological dimensions of work are to the effective management of people.
This chapter discusses evaluating the reliability of knowledge and the credibility of sources with the overall aim of identifying and using strong evidence as one of the key elements of critical thinking. Evidence is something tangible that determines your line of reasoning and supports your argument to make it more convincing. Sources need to be evaluated for their credibility based on expertise and vested interest, but you should also use independent verification through gatekeepers who assess the underlying knowledge. You can place various sources on a continuum from least to most credible, including blogs; agenda-driven news media; company websites; Wikipedia; consultants, think tanks, and NGO reports; respected and established news media; reputable organization reports; audited reports; and academic sources. To find academic sources of evidence, you should identify the leading textbook in your field and learn to use an academic journal database to identify key articles. Referencing is a standardized way of demonstrating your knowledge of the topic, demonstrating the credibility of your evidence, providing the reader with avenues to explore ideas further, and ensuring good academic practice by acknowledging the work of others and avoiding plagiarism.
Sarah Birrell Ivory
Becoming a Critical Thinker starts by considering what it is that makes someone a critical thinker and why critical thinking skills are worth developing. The text argues that there are many benefits to looking at the world through a critical lens. The book first defines critical thinking in direct relation to the university experience before proceeding to discuss the ways in which a learner can become more of a critical thinker. The second part of the book looks at the three aims of critical thinking: quality of argument, strength of evidence, and clarity of communication. The final part is about mastering the tools of critical thinking. There are five major tools that a good critical thinker should use: writing, reading, listening, speaking, and—perhaps obviously—thinking.
This chapter focuses on the actual content or terms of a contract. It discusses the two main classifications of contractual terms, namely express and implied terms, and considers the courts’ approach in the determining when terms should be implied into a contract. It explains that express terms are those specifically agreed upon by the parties while implied terms are those that may be implied by the court, statute, or custom. This chapter also explains how some implied terms can be excluded via an express provision and discusses the parol evidence rule, collateral contract, and entire agreement clause. The chapter concludes by looking at the principles established by the courts when interpreting contractual provisions.